Novozámecký a Břehyňský rybník

Novozámecký and Břehyňský fishponds

RS03
Localisation: 50.620763N 14.563399E
Area: 927.150 ha
Category: Wetlands of International Importance
Inclusion in the list of Wetlands of International Importance: 1990
Criteria for inclusion in RS: 2
The degree of protection: SPA, NNR, SCI, PLA
Altitude: 252 - 322 m
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Wetland’s figure

Brief characteristics

Novozámecký fishpond, with its extensive reed stands, wet meadows and willow carr, is one of the most important ornithological sites in the Czech Republic. Břehyňský fishpond, found on peaty soils within a forest complex, is surrounded by extensive reed stands, fens, alder carr and waterlogged pine and spruce forest; it is also a valuable ornithological site. Thanks to the occurrence of endangered plant species and rare plant communities, both sites are also highly valuable botanically. Both fishponds, dating back to the 14th century, were constructed on the sites of peaty wetlands.

Geographical and geological data

Both fishponds are situated in the Bohemian Chalk Plateau in the parts 'Ralská pahorkatina' and Českolipská kotlina'. The subbasement if formed by Turonian thick-bedded sandstone. The fishponds were founded in the place of peaty wetlands in 14th century. The climate is moderate, the average annual air temperature is 7° C, and the average annual rainfall is 650 mm.

Ecological characteristics

The vegetation, for many decades, has been left to develop through spontaneous succession. Reed beds and alder carrs, at Novozámecký fishpond, have spread substantially, at the expense of formerly managed fen and peaty meadows. This has led to a change in bird species and the almost entire disappearance of several fen plant species that are endangered in the Czech Republic as a whole. On the Břehyně fishpond, valuable wet and peaty meadows are being overgrown by Phragmites, Molinia, various bushes and trees. Both fishponds used to be rather intensively-managed for fish production, which has led to their increased eutrophication - resulting in the rich growth of Nuphar lutea, on Novozámecký fishpond, and Myriophyllum spicatum on Břehyně fishpond.

Protection

The Ramsar site is part of the National Nature Reserve (NNR) Novozámecký fishpond (350 ha, designated in 1933) and NNR Břehyně-Pecopala (903.5 ha, designated in 1967). It is planned to enlarge the current Ramsar site to include the fen areas, Jestřebské slatiny and Swamp, and the northern and southeastern bay of Máchovo lake. Novozámecký fishpond underwent restoration/reconstruction during 1997–1998. It included restoration of the replica of the historical outflow system and fish harvest landing area of the fishpond, the work being funded from national sources for nature protection and Ramsar Small Grant Fund.

Conservation activities

Management of both fishponds follows the recommendations for managing the national nature reserves. Management of adjacent forests is undertaken on the basis of forest management plans made in agreement with the state nature protection authorities.

The main human activities

Extensive fish production

The main negative factors

The main problem of the site is the increased siltation and eutrophication of the fishponds. This is a result of the intensive fish production undertaken in the fishponds in the past, and the leaching of nutrients from the surrounding landscape, as well as the discharge of untreated wastewater to the inflow streams of the fishponds.

Value for water management

Accumulation of water from the surroundings.

Social and cultural significance

Fish production is of negligible importance. Novozámecký fishpond is a Cultural Heritage site of the 1st category (No. 3407/1-3) since 1964.

Flora and vegetation characteristic

The open water of Novozámecký fishpond is covered by aquatic vegetation dominated by Nuphar lutea accompanied by Nymphaea candida. An extensive reed belt forms a transition zone between the open water and adjacent waterlogged peaty meadows, willow and alder carr. The site attracted the attention of botanists already in the 19th century; presently the fishpond and its surrounding support about 40 species of endangered plants. Critically-endangered plant species found here are: Carex dioica, Dryopteris cristata, Eleocharis quinqueflora, Liparis loeselii, Nymphaea candida and Salix repens s. s. From Břehyně fishpond, about 30 plant associations have been described; however, some of them have since disappeared. The most valuable are the plant communities on mires, pine forest on peaty soils, wet meadows and sedges. Among the endangered species, the most important are: Andromeda polifolia, Dactylorhiza incarnata, Drosera rotundifolia, Dryopteris cristata, Hammarbya paludosa, Ledum palustre, Liparis loeselii, Nymphaea candida, Rhynchospora alba, etc. The site is unique for the appearance of Chara aspera (as the only site in the Czech Republic).

Fauna characteristic

Both fishponds represent the most valuable bird areas in northern Bohemia, both as breeding sites (Grus grus – in recent years a minimum of 2– 3 pairs, Botaurus stellaris, Anser anser, Haliaeetus albicilla, Circus aeruginosus, Locustella luscinioides, Panurus biarmicus), and as stop-over sites on migration (more than 200 species have been observed here). Mammals – Lutra lutra. Amphibians – Bufo calamita (in the vicinity of Břehyňský fishpond), Pelobates fuscus, Rana temporaria, R. dalmatina, and R. ridibunda. Invertebrates: molluscs – Gyraulus laevis. Also, the transitional mires on the S and SE shore of the Břehyňský fishpond are important for fauna. Recorded here were unique spiders such as Theridion conigerum (the only record in the Czech Republic), and Haplodrassus moderatus (the only locality in the Czech Republic apart from Šumava). Břehyňský fishpond – spiders: Chryso conigerum, Gnaphosa nigerrim, Gonatium rubens, Haplodrassus moderatus, Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata, Theonoe minutissima, Tibellus maritimus. Insects: beetles – Agonum ericeti, Epaphius rivularis, Oodes gracilis, Patrobus assimilis; butterflies – the only site in the Czech Republic with Phyllonorycter anderidae.

Research activities

A systematic ornithological monitoring has been carried out at both sites since 1955. A field station is situated in the Břehyňský fishpond nature reserve. A study into population dynamics of Orchideaceae is being carried out in Novozámecký fishpond area.

Recreational use

The north-western bank of Břehyňský fishpond is used for recreation to a small extent.

Reasons for inclusion in the Ramsar Convention

Wetlands hosting rare and endangered species of plants and animals. Ramsar criteria: 2.

Natural habitats

Habitat code Habitat name Code of the habitat type Name the habitat type Area Relative area (%) Habitat quality (1-4)
L5.4 Acidofilní bučiny 9110 Bučiny asociace Luzulo-Fagetum 11.106 ha 1.2 2.37
L6.5B Acidofilní teplomilné doubravy bez kručinky chlupaté (Genista pilosa) -- -- 0.151 ha 0.02 2
T1.4 Aluviální psárkové louky -- -- 5.489 ha 0.59 2.11
L8.1A Boreokontinentální bory, lišejníkové porosty na píscích 91T0 Středoevropské lišejníkové bory 0.065 ha 0.01 4
L8.1B Boreokontinentální bory, ostatní porosty -- -- 32.399 ha 3.49 3.63
L3.1 Hercynské dubohabřiny 9170 Dubohabřiny asociace Galio-Carpinetum 1.513 ha 0.16 3.98
T5.3 Kostřavové trávníky písčin 2330 Otevřené trávníky kontinentálních dun s paličkovcem (Corynephorus) a psinečkem (Agrostis) 4.923 ha 0.53 2.09
V3 Makrofytní vegetace oligotrofních jezírek a tůní 3160 Přirozená dystrofní jezera a tůně 0.352 ha 0.04 1
V1C Makrofytní vegetace přirozeně eutrofních a mezotrofních stojatých vod s bublinatkou jižní nebo obecnou (Utricularia australis a U. vulgaris) 3150 Přirozené eutrofní vodní nádrže s vegetací typu Magnopotamion nebo Hydrocharition 0.003 ha -- 2
V1F Makrofytní vegetace přirozeně eutrofních a mezotrofních stojatých vod, porosty bez druhů charakteristických pro V1A-V1E 3150 Přirozené eutrofní vodní nádrže s vegetací typu Magnopotamion nebo Hydrocharition 138.412 ha 14.93 1.81
V1G Makrofytní vegetace přirozeně eutrofních a mezotrofních stojatých vod, porosty bez ochranářsky významných vodních makrofytů -- -- 2.275 ha 0.25 2.5
V4B Makrofytní vegetace vodních toků, stanoviště s potenciálním výskytem vodních makrofytů nebo se zjevně přirozeným či přírodě blízkým chrakterem koryta -- -- 1.503 ha 0.16 2.5
T1.1 Mezofilní ovsíkové louky 6510 Extenzivní sečené louky nížin až podhůří (Arrhenatherion, Brachypodio-Centaureion nemoralis) 8.600 ha 0.93 2.94
M1.6 Mezotrofní vegetace bahnitých substrátů 7140 Přechodová rašeliniště a třasoviště 2.076 ha 0.22 1.92
L1 Mokřadní olšiny -- -- 61.870 ha 6.67 1.66
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List of species of conservation finding database

Category Latin name of the species Czech name of the species Protection category
(Law 114/92 Sb.)
Directive of birds/
habitats
Red list Invasiveness (i) Year of last record
Blanokřídlí Hylaeus pfankuchi -- -- -- Lokálně vyhynulý (RE) -- 2011
Motýli Acronicta menyanthidis -- -- -- Téměř ohrožený (NT) -- 2016
Ptáci Anser sp. -- -- -- Zranitelný (VU) -- 2014
Pavouci Tetragnatha shoshone -- -- -- Zranitelný (VU) -- 2012
Pavouci Taranucnus setosus -- -- -- Zranitelný (VU) -- 2012
Pavouci Entelecara flavipes -- -- -- Zranitelný (VU) -- 2012
Netopýři Plecotus sp. -- Silně ohrožený HD IV -- -- 2011
Netopýři Myotis mystacinus/brandti -- Silně ohrožený HD IV -- -- 2011
Motýli Ostrinia palustralis -- -- -- Zranitelný (VU) -- 2009
Motýli Lithophane lamda -- -- -- Ohrožený (EN) -- 2015
Motýli Coenophila subrosea -- -- -- Zranitelný (VU) -- 2016
Motýli Arichanna melanaria -- -- -- Zranitelný (VU) -- 2016
Brouci Aromia moschata -- -- -- Téměř ohrožený (NT) -- 2013
Brouci Pseudanostirus globicollis -- -- -- Ohrožený (EN) -- 2012
Měkkýši Arion vulgaris -- -- -- -- BL3 2014
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Photos

Literature

CHYTIL, J.; HAKROVÁ, P.; HUDEC, K. (eds.) et al. (1999). Mokřady České republiky: Přehled vodních a mokřadních lokalit České republiky. Mikulov: Český ramsarský výbor. 327 s.

HÄRTEL, H.; LONČÁKOVÁ, J.; HOŠEK, M. (eds.) (2009). Mapování biotopů v České republice: Východiska, výsledky, perspektivy. 1. vydání. Praha: Agentura ochrany přírody a krajiny ČR. 196 s., tabulky, mapy, CD-ROM. ISBN 978-80-87051-36-8.