Litovelské Pomoraví

Litovelské Pomoraví

RS05
Localisation: 49.697893N 17.104889E
Area: 6 194.278 ha
Category: Wetlands of International Importance
Wetland's type: floodplain lake (backwater), oxbow, pool
floodplain forest, alder or willow carr, or other wetland forest
flooded or wet meadow
other aquatic or wetland biotopes
reedswamp, sedge marshes
quarry, gravel or sand pit
Inclusion in the list of Wetlands of International Importance: 1993
Criteria for inclusion in RS: 1, 3
The degree of protection: NNR, NM, NR, PLA, SCI, SPA
Altitude: 215 - 275 m
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Wetland’s figure

Brief characteristics

Riverine wetland, from 0.2 to 4.2 km wide, in the River Morava floodplain between the municipalities of Olomouc – Litovel – Mohelnice (central Moravia). It is a regularly flooded area of a natural stretch of the River Morava, which here preserves its natural activity and creates an inland delta within a complex of floodplain forests. The site is predominantly a riverine wetland with numerous permanent or periodically temporary pools, oxbows and river arms with adjacent wetland, fen and wet meadow communities, and floodplain forests with many smaller and bigger water bodies, sand pits, fishponds, and dead river arms.

Geographical and geological data

The area is two thirds surrounded by dams in order to protect the surrounding farmland from flooding. The water regime of the site depends on the amount of water in the River Morava, as well as on the regime of floods. The water regime then influences the succession dynamics of plant and animal communities. The forest ecosystems have a natural composition of tree species, common is a rich shrub understored with typical seasonal aspects of herbaceous plant communities. The forests grow on mainly nutrient-rich semi-gley soils with favourable humification; on fens – fenpeaty soils.

Ecological characteristics

There are various biotopes typical of riverine wetlands mostly depend on the water regime. Considerable are occasional pools with many invertebrates which connect with their cycles - some of them on the northwest edge of their range of occurrence. There are only partial changes in the banks of the naturally meandering river. The forest communities have a natural composition of woodland species, which usually include a rich shrub layer and the typical seasonal aspects of plant communities. Prevailing associations include Ficario-Ulmetum campestris, Fraxino-Populetum, Pado-Alnetum. Originally rich wet meadow communities only partly remain, and were replaced by semicultural and cultural meadows. The following alliances indicate meadows and wetland communities: Phragmition communis, Phalaridion arundinaceae, Caricion gracilis, C. fuscae, Molinion, Alopecurion pratensis, Arrhenatherion (many of these are partly transformed into semicultural meadows). The bank vegetation and communities of flowing water are not sufficiently known. Standing waters are host to communities of the alliances Lemnion minoris and rarely Nymphaeion and Eu-Potamion.

Protection

The whole site is situated in the Protected Landscape are called "Litovelské Pomoraví"; the most valuable parts are protected as national nature reserves or as nature reserves. The Protected Landscape Area covers 5097 ha.

The main human activities

Intensive agriculture, forestry, recreation (tourism, hunting)

The main negative factors

Main changes are related with the change of land tenure. Impact of pollution arising from both chemical and mechanical processes, at the river Morava, not only within the area but mainly upstream and on tributaries. Decrease of minimal discharge influences the habitats connected with a watercourse. There are negative microclimatic changes in the forest communities due to the unsuitable form of forestry, including changes for the intensive breeding of pheasants. The ground water level has dropped due to the drinking water being exploited. The discussed construction of the "Dunaj-Odra-Labe" canal (connecting the Danube, the Odra and the Elbe) would severely endanger the ecosystems. Further negative changes are not envisaged.

Value for water management

The average annual rainfall is 578mm. The evapotranspiration of the floodplain forest is 673 mm. The water deficit of the area is balanced by regular spring floods (exceptionally in other times of year) and by replenishment from ground water reserves during the rest of the year. The Quaternary sediments hold plentiful reserves of drinking water. The average flow of the Morava River in Olomouc is 15m3/s. The area has 240km of active water-courses (occupying 250 ha), 100 km of periodically flushed back-waters (till mid-May), flooded forest (3,500 ha), about 2,000 pools (of which 200 are permanent), springs (karst and alluvial gravel outflows, 300 ha of stagnant waters, in total about 4,125 ha of wetland biotopes. The area considerably increases the humidity of the surrounding drained land, decreases dust pollution and wind erosion. Conspicuous phenomena include sedimentation in pools both in the river bed and in the inundation area, formation of bar gravels and of slip-off slopes.

Social and cultural significance

The area is used for intensive agriculture and forestry. Numerous sights are part of cultural heritage (Lichtenštejn estate, the town of Litovel on six backwaters of the Morava River, village architecture, water works).

Flora and vegetation characteristic

Prevailing associations of mature floodplain forests (with mainly natural tree composition) include: Querco-Ulmetum, Pado-Alnetum, Salici-Populetum. Originally rich wet meadow communities have remained only in places, many of them having been replaced by semi-cultivated meadows. The following alliances indicate wetland and meadow communities: Alopecurion pratensis, Arrhenatherion, Caricion fuscae, C. gracilis, Molinion coerulae, Phalaridion arundinacea, Phragmition communis. The vegetation of river banks and running waters is not well known. In standing waters the following alliances are found: Lemnion minoris, and less often Nymphaeion and Potamion. The most important plant species include: Carex bohemica, C. buekii, C. cespitosa, C. umbrosa, Ceratophyllum submersum, Epipactis albensis, Hippochaete varigeata, Iris sibirica, Lathyrus pratensis, Menyanthes trifoliata, Ranunculus lingua, Sparganium minimum, Trollius altissimus, Utricularia vulgaris, Viola stagnina.

Fauna characteristic

Among invertebrates, the area supports typical spring crustacean species: Lynceus brachyurus, Lepidurus apus, Siphonophanes grubii, and endemic crustacean species Parastenocaris moravica, and probably also an endemic association of crustaceans (under study). Molluscs: Anisus vorticulus, Gyraulus rossmaessleri, Pisidium pseudosphaerium. Typical bird communities of mature floodplain forests: breeding Ixobrychus minutus, Rallus aquaticus, Alcedo atthis, Riparia riparia, Remiz pendulinus; on gravel sediments of the River Morava: Charadrius dubius and Actitis hypoleucos; most likely, also Porzana porzana. Mammals: Lutra lutra (occasional appearance). Successful reintroduction of European Beaver Castor fiber. In the River Morava there are found 28 species of fish.

Research activities

Intensive research is carried out by Palacký University in Olomouc, by the Administration of the Protected Landscape Area "Litovelské Pomoraví" by the Regional Museum in Olomouc and by experts from the independent Association for Protection and development of "Litovelské Pomoraví

Recreational use

Practised activities include: hiking along marked trails, canoeing down the Morava River, angling, water sports in sand pits (yachting etc.). The area is used mainly by inhabitants of surrounding communities including the centre of the region, Olomouc.

Reasons for inclusion in the Ramsar Convention

The naturally meandering Morava river, with all manifestations of recent activity, forms a unique inland delta in a complex of floodplain forests with meadow enclaves. The inundation area includes numerous permanent and periodic water bodies and wetlands (mainly fens). The area has great diversity of landscape elements, which is a pre-requisite for the occurrence of numerous rare species and communities of plants and animals. The area meets Criteria 1, 3.

Natural habitats

Habitat code Habitat name Code of the habitat type Name the habitat type Area Relative area (%) Habitat quality (1-4)
L6.5B Acidofilní teplomilné doubravy bez kručinky chlupaté (Genista pilosa) -- -- 0.312 ha 0.01 2
T1.4 Aluviální psárkové louky -- -- 175.807 ha 2.84 2.61
M6 Bahnité říční náplavy 3270 Bahnité břehy řek s vegetací svazů Chenopodion rubri p. p. a Bidention p. p. 3.879 ha 0.06 1.55
M1.3 Eutrofní vegetace bahnitých substrátů -- -- 3.006 ha 0.05 1.5
L3.1 Hercynské dubohabřiny 9170 Dubohabřiny asociace Galio-Carpinetum 14.704 ha 0.24 1.76
S3B Jeskyně nepřístupné veřejnosti 8310 Jeskyně nepřístupné veřejnosti 0.001 ha -- 1
L5.1 Květnaté bučiny 9130 Bučiny asociace Asperulo-Fagetum 0.710 ha 0.01 1.7
V2C Makrofytní vegetace mělkých stojatých vod, ostatní porosty -- -- 0.187 ha -- 2
V2B Makrofytní vegetace mělkých stojatých vod, porosty s dominantní žebratkou bahenní (Hottonia palustris) -- -- 1.029 ha 0.02 1.76
V2A Makrofytní vegetace mělkých stojatých vod, porosty s dominantními lakušníky -- -- 0.117 ha -- 1
V1F Makrofytní vegetace přirozeně eutrofních a mezotrofních stojatých vod, porosty bez druhů charakteristických pro V1A-V1E 3150 Přirozené eutrofní vodní nádrže s vegetací typu Magnopotamion nebo Hydrocharition 3.103 ha 0.05 1.91
V1G Makrofytní vegetace přirozeně eutrofních a mezotrofních stojatých vod, porosty bez ochranářsky významných vodních makrofytů -- -- 7.938 ha 0.13 3.07
V4A Makrofytní vegetace vodních toků, porosty aktuálně přítomných vodních makrofytů 3260 Nížinné až horské vodní toky s vegetací svazů Ranunculion fluitantis a Callitricho-Batrachion 0.060 ha -- 3
V4B Makrofytní vegetace vodních toků, stanoviště s potenciálním výskytem vodních makrofytů nebo se zjevně přirozeným či přírodě blízkým chrakterem koryta -- -- 72.502 ha 1.17 3.03
T4.2 Mezofilní bylinné lemy -- -- 0.003 ha -- 4
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List of species of conservation finding database

Category Latin name of the species Czech name of the species Protection category
(Law 114/92 Sb.)
Directive of birds/
habitats
Red list Invasiveness (i) Year of last record
Brouci Adrastus montanus -- -- -- Ohrožený (EN) -- 2012
Brouci Zorochros quadriguttatus -- -- -- Kriticky ohrožený (CR) -- 2016
Brouci Meloe rugosus -- Ohrožený -- Zranitelný (VU) -- 2013
Brouci Microrhagus lepidus -- -- -- Ohrožený (EN) -- 2013
Brouci Mordellaria aurofasciata -- -- -- Kriticky ohrožený (CR) -- 2012
Brouci Mycetophagus fulvicollis -- -- -- Zranitelný (VU) -- 2013
Brouci Neatus picipes -- -- -- Téměř ohrožený (NT) -- 2015
Brouci Negastrius pulchellus -- -- -- Kriticky ohrožený (CR) -- 2016
Brouci Phosphaenus hemipterus -- -- -- Zranitelný (VU) -- 2012
Brouci Platynus krynickii -- -- -- Zranitelný (VU) -- 2012
Brouci Podeonius acuticornis -- -- -- Kriticky ohrožený (CR) -- 2012
Brouci Pseudeuparius sepicola -- -- -- Téměř ohrožený (NT) -- 2013
Brouci Rhagium sycophanta -- -- -- Téměř ohrožený (NT) -- 2017
Brouci Scraptia dubia -- -- -- Téměř ohrožený (NT) -- 2012
Brouci Trachodes hispidus -- -- -- Téměř ohrožený (NT) -- 2015
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Photos

Literature

CHYTIL, J.; HAKROVÁ, P.; HUDEC, K. (eds.) et al. (1999). Mokřady České republiky: Přehled vodních a mokřadních lokalit České republiky. Mikulov: Český ramsarský výbor. 327 s.

HÄRTEL, H.; LONČÁKOVÁ, J.; HOŠEK, M. (eds.) (2009). Mapování biotopů v České republice: Východiska, výsledky, perspektivy. 1. vydání. Praha: Agentura ochrany přírody a krajiny ČR. 196 s., tabulky, mapy, CD-ROM. ISBN 978-80-87051-36-8.