Krkonošská rašeliniště

Krkonoše Mountains mires

Localisation: 50.766671N 15.541099E
Area: 250.692 ha
Category: Wetlands of International Importance
Wetland's type: mire, i.e. bog or fen
Inclusion in the list of Wetlands of International Importance: 1993
Criteria for inclusion in RS: 3
The degree of protection: SCI, NP, SPA
Altitude: 1150 - 1400 m
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Wetland’s figure

Brief characteristics

Mires of a subarctic character, belonging to the arctic-alpine tundra of the Giant (Krkonoše) Mountains, with a combination of arctic and alpine features and the occurrence of endangered, relict and endemic plant and animal species. These are relict islands of the central European mire vegetation that survived from the Late Glacial and then modified by alpine species spreading their range at a later stage. Such a development is documented, on the one hand, by a high similarity with recent plant associations of the European subarctic region, and on the other hand, by the genesis of endemic communities.

Geographical and geological data

The mires are found on granite rocks on summit plateaux, i.e. in accelerated wind areas of the anemo-orographic systems. The peat layer depth is highly variable, from only several decimetres up to a maximum depth of 2.8 m. The surface morphology, in places, reminds one of the stränge-flark system of northern mires with bog-lakes up to 170 m2.

Ecological characteristics

The vegetation covering mires consists of three physiognomic units – mosses, herbaceous plants and pine krummholz. Moss communities of the alliances Leuco-Scheuchzerion palustris and Drepanocladion exannulati are replaced, on elevated patches of ground, by herbaceous communities of the alliances Oxycocco-Empetrion hermaphroditi and Caricion fuscae, or Nardo-Caricion rigidae. The shrub vegetation includes mosaic stands of Swiss pine (Pinus mugo) and willows (Salix lapponum and S. silesiaca), with solitary individuals of stunted trees of Betula carpatica, Picea abies and Sorbus aucuparia.

Forma ochrany území

The mires are situated in the core zone (Zone I) of the Krkonoše National Park. Management of these subarctic mires is mainly focused on tourism regulation, provision of board-walks for visitors, and elimination of invasive allochtonous plant species.

The main human activities

The site is an attractive tourist destination, without direct agriculture or forestry exploitation.

The main negative factors

The impact of tourism is considerable.

Value for water management

Spring areas of the Labe (the Elbe) and the Úpa rivers.

Flora and vegetation characteristic

As concerns the vegetation, the occurrence of endemic and relict elements is of the utmost value: endemic community of Chamaemoro-Pinetum mughi or notable alga Corcontochrysis noctivaga; glacial relicts - alliances of Calliergo sarmentosi-Eriophoretum angustifolii, Chamaemoro-Empetrum hermaphroditi and Sphagno lindbergii-Caricetum limosae. Dominant and characteristic plant species are bog-mosses: Sphagnum compactum and S. lindbergii; mosses: Calliergon sarmentosum and Drepanocladus exannulatus; sedges: Carex limosa, C. paupercula and C. rostrata; and Andromeda polifolia, Empetrum hermaphroditum, Eriophorum vaginatum, Oxycoccus microcarpus, Pedicularis sudetica, Rubus chamaemorus or Trichophorum cespitosum.

Fauna characteristic

Invertebrates recorded include, spiders: Arctosa alpigena lamperti, Agyneta decora, Bathyphantes setiger, Centromerus arcanus, and Pardosa saltuaria; dragonflies: Aeshna caerulea, Leucorrhinia dubia, and Somatochlora alpestris; caddis flies: Ecclisopteryx dalecarlica, Limnephilus coenosus, and Rhyacophila polonica; moths: Dasypolia templi and Papestra biren; butterflies: Chionodes viduella, Coleophora vacciniella, Elachista kilmunella, Glacies alpinata, and Pachynematus parvilabris; beetles: Agonum ericeti, Hydroporus nivalis (glacial relict with only one locality recorded in the Czech Republic), and Patrobus assimilis. Birds: Tetrao tetrix, Luscinia svecica svecica (all the birds which nest in the Czech Republic, i.e. 25–30 pairs), Turdus torquatus, Carduelis flammea, Carpodacus erythrinus, Anthus pratensis, and less frequently Anthus spinoletta. Mammals: the most important is Sorex alpinus.

Research activities

Research into geobotany, forestry (Pinus mugo), entomology and hydrobiology has been carried out by institutes of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Monitoring of changes in plant and animal communities in response to emissions is carried out by the Administration of the Krkonoše National Park.

Recreational use

The impact of tourism is considerable (two mountain chalets and a dense network of hiking tracks affect the adjacent vegetation).

Reasons for inclusion in the Ramsar Convention

System of ridge peat bogs developed in extrem climatic conditions within Central Europe. It represents exceptional biogeographical islands in which relic subarctic phenomena are intermingled with more recent alpine phenomena. The site hosts numerous endemic communities. Criterion 3.

Natural habitats

Habitat code Habitat name Code of the habitat type Name the habitat type Area Relative area (%) Habitat quality (1-4)
A6A Acidofilní vegetace alpínských drolin 8110 Silikátové sutě horského až niválního stupně (Androsacetalia alpinae a Galeopsietalia ladani) 0.094 ha 0.04 1.07
A6B Acidofilní vegetace alpínských skal 8220 Chasmofytická vegetace silikátových skalnatých svahů 0.054 ha 0.02 1
A2.1 Alpínská vřesoviště 4060 Alpínská a boreální vřesoviště 0.008 ha -- 1
R3.4 Degradovaná vrchoviště 7120 Degradovaná vrchoviště (ještě schopná přirozené obnovy) 0.224 ha 0.09 2
T1.2 Horské trojštětové louky 6520 Horské sečené louky 0.033 ha 0.01 2
L9.1 Horské třtinové smrčiny 9410 Acidofilní smrčiny (Vaccinio-Piceetea) 1.695 ha 0.68 1
A7 Kosodřevina 4070 Křoviny s borovicí klečí (Pinus mugo) a pěnišníkem Rhododendron hirsutum (Mugo-Rhododendretum hirsuti) 63.017 ha 25.14 1.32
V1G Makrofytní vegetace přirozeně eutrofních a mezotrofních stojatých vod, porosty bez ochranářsky významných vodních makrofytů -- -- 0.009 ha -- 3
R3.1 Otevřená vrchoviště 7110 Aktivní vrchoviště 22.189 ha 8.85 1.02
R2.3 Přechodová rašeliniště 7140 Přechodová rašeliniště a třasoviště 10.915 ha 4.35 1.42
L9.2A Rašelinné smrčiny 91D0 Rašelinný les 2.006 ha 0.8 1
A3 Sněhová vyležiska 6150 Silikátové alpínské a boreální trávníky 0.052 ha 0.02 1
A2.2 Subalpínská brusnicová vegetace 4060 Alpínská a boreální vřesoviště 9.802 ha 3.91 1.03
R1.5 Subalpínská prameniště -- -- 0.000 ha -- 1
A8.1 Subalpínské křoviny s vrbou laponskou (Salix lapponum) 4080 Subarktické vrbové křoviny 0.124 ha 0.05 1
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List of species of conservation finding database

Category Latin name of the species Czech name of the species Protection category
(Law 114/92 Sb.)
Directive of birds/
Red list Invasiveness (i) Year of last record
Brouci Crenitis punctatostriata -- -- -- Téměř ohrožený (NT) -- 2023
Mechorosty Orthocaulis atlanticus -- -- -- Lokálně vyhynulý (RE) -- 2021
Mechorosty Sphagnum sp. -- -- HD V -- -- 2016
Mechorosty Sphagnum magellenicum agg. -- -- HD V -- -- 2016
Brouci Ilybius aenescens -- -- -- Téměř ohrožený (NT) -- 2023
Mechorosty Plagiothecium denticulatum var. obtusifolium -- -- -- Zranitelný (VU) -- 2015
Brouci Ilybius crassus -- -- -- Téměř ohrožený (NT) -- 2023
Ptáci Gallinago gallinago bekasina otavní Silně ohrožený -- Ohrožený (EN) -- 2023
Cévnaté rostliny Phleum alpinum bojínek alpský -- -- Téměř ohrožený (NT) -- 2022
Motýli Lasiocampa quercus bourovec dubový -- -- Ohrožený (EN) -- 2021
Ptáci Saxicola rubetra bramborníček hnědý Ohrožený -- -- -- 2020
Ptáci Saxicola rubicola bramborníček černohlavý Ohrožený -- Zranitelný (VU) -- 2021
Cévnaté rostliny Betula pubescens subsp. carpatica bříza karpatská -- -- Chybí údaje (DD) -- 2016
Cévnaté rostliny Pilosella aurantiaca chlupáček oranžový -- -- Téměř ohrožený (NT) -- 2021
Cévnaté rostliny Gentiana asclepiadea hořec tolitovitý Ohrožený -- -- -- 2022
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